11. Raphael Carl LeeRaphael Carl Lee discovered the use of surfactant copolymers as molecular chaperones to augment endogenous injury repair mechanisms of living cells, according to his Wikipedia page.
Lee studied engineering at the University of South Carolina and completed the program with interest in medical applications. He then enrolled in Temple University School of Medicine and Drexel University College of Engineering’s combined medicine and engineering programs. He received his MD and MS degrees in 1975 and had his general surgery residency training at the University of Chicago Hospitals.
He holds several patents for scar treatment therapies, tissue engineered ligaments and brain trauma therapies.