10. RNA-based therapies
DNA is transcribed to RNA in human cells, which is then translated into proteins. The proteins are then responsible for a number of tasks within the body, some not so good. RNA-based therapies can intercept the genetic information at the RNA level and prevent certain proteins from producing before the protein has the chance to become functioning.
RNA has particles known as antisense nucleotides that are complementary to messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are what encodes proteins. When the molecules are bound to an mRNA, the double-stranded region of the mRNA can no longer interact with ribosomes. No interaction means that the RNA is not able to be translated into proteins, according to Olga Stenina-Adognravi, who is a member of the Lerner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic.
RNA-based therapies were FDA-approved in 2018 and are currently being tested for use in cancer and neurological diseases.